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Thursday, December 25, 2008

The Wrath of Sydney Anglican Diocese

Most writers and readers of this site will be familiar with a man called Mike Paget. He reasonably represents Sydney Anglican attitude which really needs a clean out from the Diocese. I had great disappointment with him about this time last year, principally because he told me an untruth. He said he would return from the CMS Summer Camp and resume dialogue on a matter of importance to me. He did not honour his word, he did not return, he did not give any reason.

Mike Paget also defends the unbiblical position taken by the Sydney Anglican Diocese on the Creation account and will not entertain criticism of what some writers here regard as a proud or elevated view many Sydney Anglicans have of their Diocese and its institutions.

This sydneyanglicanheretics blogspot is an anathema to them. We have the 'hide' to criticise their way and, in retaliation, it means little for them to misrepresent us to others.

It has been pointed out to me that Mike Paget recently went onto a blogger site run by atheists in Sydney and said the following: "BTW, I've met Sydney Anglican Heretics crew online, and it was a most unpleasant experience. I can assure you that they're not so much rattled as gleeful that you had a bigger presence at the Festival than Anglican Christians."

This is in response to Sam Drucker's blog here concerning his observation of no presence of Diocesan representatives at Newtown Festival. Sam's blog was apparently noticed by the atheists. Mike Paget's comments are a misrepresentation of our position. We are not gleeful at the sorry state of evangelism in the Sydney Anglican Diocese. We are instead grieved. A few of us are Sydney Anglicans and are grieved at how the Diocese has stepped away from God and toward man. This will have disastrous consequences and we see elements of this in the lacklustre commitment to evangelism within the Diocese on the eve of Connect 09. This is not a matter for glee! Atheists 'outevangelising' Christians is cause for concern.

Instead of acknowledging and acting positively on our 'wake up call' the Diocese has chosen, like Israel did with Jeremiah, to disdain and ignore the messenger. I wonder whether they might even attempt some form of 'doing away' with the messenger.

Such actions only demonstrate some parallels with the history of Israel.

Take your medicine Mike Paget & Co. Repent and believe on the Word of God and don't go running off to form some form of allegiance with atheists against us.


Friday, December 19, 2008

Blog news

I've just added the Anglican Origins blog to our list of seems to be along our lines and otherwise pretty innocuous(just what you'd expect from the North Shore, where it appears to be based) and low volume (pity), but if it is a trick from Moore College, it's out!

Monday, December 15, 2008

Leupold Genesis part 6 historical character

5. Historical Character of the Record

The issue involved briefly stated is: Have we history or legend in Genesis? A notable array of famous scholars can be cited in support of what the great majority of writers on the subject in our day regard as the only tenable view, namely Genesis is legend. From Wellhausen down outstanding names are Gunkel, Jeremias, Driver, Skinner, Procksch, etc., etc. However, we are not impressed by this array of learning, which we must without reservation class as pseudo-science on matters of this sort. Strong dogmatic presuppositions are too definitely displayed by these scholars: miracles are considered as practically impossible; so is plenary inspiration; Israel's history can rise to no higher levels than the Babylonian or the Egyptian; an arbitrary evolutionary standard is to be employed in measuring historical evidence. Besides, the following facts of Israel's history are overlooked:

a) the utter dissimilarity of the Genesis record and the legends of the nations (the sober common sense of average Christians has always been able to detect this difference much more clearly than the overtrained scholar, who often loses entirely his sense of perspective);

b) the clear distinction preserved by Israel's sacred records of the successive stages of revelation (4:26; 17:22-27; Exod. 6:3; Exod. 20; Deut. 18:15,19; I Sam. 3:1, etc.);

c) the accuracy of Israel's historical tradition (13:10; chapter 14; 20:20-24; chapter 25; 26:1; cf. also chapter 5 and chapter 10);

d) distinct efforts by the patriarchs to perpetuate the remembrance of events of outstanding religious importance (12:7; 13:18; 21:33; 33:20);

e) the sober tone displayed in recording the most exalted revelation (we refer to the following chapters 12, 15, 18, 22, and 32:23-32); f the utter impartiality displayed in recording the history of those who are the patriarchs and the fathers of tribes (12:10 fi; 20:1-18; 26:1-17; 30:1-43; chapter 34; chapter 38). Koenig's Commentary (p. 80 ff.) gives additional material on this score.

Ralph Vaughan Williams

Heard on ABC FM Sunday 14 Dec 08:

Ralph Vaughan Williams great uncle was Charles Darwin. Ralph was young at the time of the controversies surrounding Darwin’s famous works, but was aware of them. He is reported to have asked his mother what the fuss was about. She replied along the lines of: “The Bible tells us that God made the world in 6 days. Uncle Charles thinks it took a little longer. But it doesn’t matter, either way, it’s quite marvelous.”

I also note that the theme of the New Year’s fireworks in Sydney this year is ‘creation’. In an article about that the designer remarked that ‘creation puts us in touch with nature’…it used to put us in touch with God, of course, but a century and a half of evolutionary fiction has made the disjunct between the creation and its creator…just as Paul observed in Romans 1.

Ralph Vaughan Williams

Heard on ABC FM Sunday 14 Dec 08:

Ralph Vaughan Williams great uncle was Charles Darwin. Ralph was young at the time of the controversies surrounding Darwin’s famous works, but was aware of them. He is reported to have asked his mother what the fuss was about. She replied along the lines of: “The Bible tells us that God made the world in 6 days. Uncle Charles thinks it took a little longer. But it doesn’t matter, either way, it’s quite marvelous.”

I also note that the theme of the New Year’s fireworks in Sydney this year is ‘creation’. In an article about that the designer remarked that ‘creation puts us in touch with nature’…it used to put us in touch with God, of course, but a century and a half of evolutionary fiction has made the disjunct between the creation and its creator…just as Paul observed in Romans 1.

Wednesday, December 3, 2008

Ebbs and Flows

"There's no proof, it's just projections, and if you look at the models people such as [evolutionary scientists] use, you can see they cherry pick the ones that support their beliefs. To date, the way the so-called [academia] and the BBC, and Royal Society and even political parties have handled this smacks of McCarthyism at its worst."

One of the defences used against the arguments of 'Six Day, Young Earth Creationists' by Atheists, Skeptics and even the compromising Church is to cite the absence of published research of 'Six Day, Young Earth Creationists' in "reputable" scientific journals. To reply saying that secular journals refuse to publish work of 'Six Day, Young Earth Creationists' just doesn't cut it with accusers. Either the accusers believe that 'reputable' journals are thoroughly objective or accusers just want reasons for sticking with the world view.

The aforesaid quote may well have been made by numerous 'Six Day, Young Earth Creationists' because it reflects what they have encountered when attempting to have their work published in scientific journals of international reputation. However, the quote, except for my insertions, were those of David Bellamy, Botanist, author of 35 books and presenter of 400 television programs and the topic under discussion was Global Warming. Instead of saying evolutionary scientists Bellamy said "Gore" [Al] and instead of saying academia Bellamy said "Greens".

David Bellamy was lamenting that he no longer gets television work after having criticised the case for Global Warming. He said "When I first stuck my head up above the parapet to say I didn't believe what we were being told about global warming, I had no idea what the consequences would be. I am a scientist and I have to follow the directions of science, but when I see the truth is being covered up I have to voice my opinions."

He went on to say "It was in 1996 that I criticised wind farms while appearing on children's program Blue Peter, and also had an article published in which I described global warming as poppycock. The truth is, I didn't think wind farms were an effective means of alternative energy, so I said so. Back then, at the BBC, you had to toe the line, and I wasn't doing that."

"At that point, I was still making loads of TV programs and I was enjoying it greatly. Then I suddenly found I was sending in ideas for TV shows and they weren't getting taken up. I've asked around about why I've been ignored, but I found that people didn't get back to me" Bellamy said. See

Such is the penalty for swimming against the tide. You may be 100% correct in your assertions but if you aren't in with the flow you are an outcast and given no recognition at all. This has been going on almost since the dawn of time. Noah was mocked for building an ark for refuge from a forthcoming event - the concept of which was outside the world view, then and now. I can write pages of examples from history of those who spoke against a particular world view, who suffered abuse for it but were later proven correct. Even then, in spite of the later acknowledged merit of a work or assertions one can still receive scorn or abuse because of being "not one of us."

An example is that of Mary Schweitzer, Paleontologist, who found T rex dinosaur bone only partially fossilised and containing what she observed to be Red Blood Cells, bearing soft tissue and having a cadaverous odour. Such a find fits well with a 'Six Day, Young Earth Creationist' view of Origins and poses problems for the world view that has dinosaurs dying out 65 million years ago. Schweitzer remains convinced that the current world view is valid in spite of her find yet she has lamented her difficulty in getting her worked published in 'reputable' journals because of the perceived difficulties her find presents for the current world view. See

Take the case of Richard Damadian, key scientist in the development of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanning machine. This machine has been of enormous benefit in the detection of cancers and other disorders within the human body. Such has been the perceived benefit to humanity that a Nobel Peace Prize for Physiology and Medicine ensued. However, the award did not go to Damadian but to his lesser assistants in the development of the MRI scanner. Why? Why would such an anomaly and injustice occur? Simply because Richard Damadian is on record for having declared his agreement to the 'Six Day, Young Earth Creationist' position on Origins. It was an embarrassment to Damadian's colleagues who received the award and it brought disgrace to the whole process of awarding the Nobel Peace Prize. See

You might bestow on the world the greatest benefit the world has ever seen but if you are not in with the flow you will suffer for it. Jesus of Nazareth is a prime example.

David Bellamy would do well to utilise his most recent experience as impetus for reviewing how the world treats those who "buck the system" and he ought apply a more objective test to what dissidents are producing in the way of research which speaks against the evolutionary model for the origin of life and how long ago it was that life emerged on earth.

As for Episcopalians of the Sydney Diocese take this advice. Stop running with those ravenous, wild dogs who think nothing of devouring lone Sheep. Trust the Word of God for it will be proven right.

Sam Drucker

Monday, December 1, 2008

Leupold Genesis part 5 purpose and text

3. Purpose

The purpose of Genesis may be formulated thus: the book aims to relate how Israel was selected from among the `nations of the world and became God's chosen people. Since, however, this choice was not made because of the merit or the excellence of Israel's ancestors but wholly because of God's unmerited and unmeritable mercy, the book may also be said to be the story of God's free grace in establishing Israel for Himself as His people.

4. Text

Two major considerations deserve attention under this head. First, the matter of the state of the purity or the integrity of the Hebrew text. No one in our day errs in the direction of the one possible extreme, namely of venturing to claim that the Hebrew text is in a state of virgin purity, exactly as it appeared in the original manuscripts. But many err in the opposite extreme of considering the Hebrew text to be utterly unreliable and in need of continual correction. Such an attitude is dangerous and ungrounded. Occasional errors may be detected, a few may be surmised. The Jewish marginal corrections, the Keris, may occasionally prove suggestive. But on the whole we have a text which is quite pure and satisfactory. It is not to be tampered with or modified according to the far less reliable Septuagint, the Targums, the Peshitto, or the Samaritan Pentateuch, though occasionally these versions (or transliterations) may contribute a bit of material valuable from the standpoint of textual criticism. The text is, furthermore, not to be modified according to subjective principles, such as critical theories or clever conjectures, which are anything but scientific. Modern critical editions of the Hebrew text, such as Kittel's Biblia Hebraica, Stuttgart, (1929), contain much misleading material and must apart from the Masoretic text be used with great caution. The traditional Masoretic text is in a good state of preservation and deserves far more confidence than is usually accorded to it. In our Hebrew Bibles we have a very good Hebrew text.

The other matter that may be considered in this connection is the question whether Genesis is a poem and therefore to be considered as Hebrew verse. On the question, which are the poetical books in the Canon, the Jews have always had a very reliable tradition. It would be strange if they themselves should have lost sight of the poetic character of the first one of their sacred writings if it had actually been poetic. The method by which outstanding exponents of this unusual hypothesis, like Sievers, arrived at their conclusions is enough to make anyone suspicious of the idea. This method involves abandoning the first principle of Hebrew poetry (parallelism); it necessitates changes or substitution of the divine name; it includes occasional textual alterations merely for the sake of securing the desired meter; and even then the type of meter which seemingly was discovered is not in evidence as clearly as we are led to believe. Neither the present text nor the original sources, as others claim, were ever cast in verse form, with the exception of such minor portions that bear the earmarks of poetry (4:23, 24; 9:25-27; 49:2-27). But we are perfectly ready to admit that Genesis has many portions of very fine rhythmical prose that rise almost to the level of exalted strains of poetry (cf. 1:27-28; 12:1-3, and many other passages).

What were they thinking of?

Two articles I’ve seen recently allow an interesting, but unsurprising conclusion when juxtaposed.

First Article
In the Sydney Morning Herald’s Spectrum for 29November 08 the following answers were given to the popular “Big Question:” “Is the idea of God the biggest idea of all?”

A 1: No. The idea of God springs from our huge egos and the resulting notion that a ‘creator’ must be huge-er. It’s an in-built survival technique because 99% of people reach middle age bitterly disappointed with their lives and need a crutch to get through the last years.

A 2: Struth, no. Why do you think we called our city Darwin?

Second Article
Then in the latest edition of Creation magazine from an interview with the president of the Ezra Institute of Contemporary Christianity in Toronto:

Q: Some Christians say the subject of origins is a side issue. From someone who’s been out there among the people for a long time, what is your opinion?

A: Suggesting this is a ‘side issue’ not only reveals a lack of exposure to sceptics and seekers in our time, but profound ignorance of the Bible and the elementary questions of philosophy. Can you imagine, Moses, Jesus, Paul, Copernicus, Galileo or even Darwin, Marx and Freud referring to the question of origins as a ‘side issue’?

I believe many Christians feel ill equipped to deal with the subject, as it is almost never preached about. However, the church will continue to be irrelevant to our time, if we persist in such thoughtless evasions.

The Conclusion
The writers in Article 1 are in complete agreement with the views expressed in Article 2, that origins is critical. Note, the writers in Article 1 are probably not Christians. They are certainly not SAD boys, because they see the issue with a clarity that escapes the SAD and it frantic ‘connect09’ farce.

I hope for the sake of the lost that C09 does good. I just don’t think that it will.

Saturday, November 22, 2008

"You Foolish Anglicans"

How wonderful man is - taking just a minute glob of chemicals he has been able to create a new windpipe for a needy woman, Claudia Castillo.

Part of a windpipe had been taken from the dead body of a 51 year old woman, it was washed to remove all her own cells. At the same time stem cells were taken from Ms Castillo's own bone marrow and grown to produce about six million cartilage cells, which were grown on the scaffold that was the part of the windpipe taken from the dead woman and had been grafted into Ms Castillo.

In a short space of time, the long term bedridden and breathing afflicted Ms Castillo was able to breath normally and resume a normal life.

I repeat, how wonderful man is! This is the herald of many body part creations we will see in coming years.

Contrast this wonder of man with the stumbling, bumbling, time consuming, frustration, death, disease and mutation riddled manner used by the 'god' of the bible many Theistic Evolutionists of the the Sydney Anglican Diocese present to the world as the creator of life.

What a sham! Who in their right mind could believe in such a god when man will able to do far better in shorter time. Nothing will be beyond man as he accelerates the arranging and rearranging of globs of chemicals. Man is the master of his own destiny. He has destroyed any slender reed of credibility that had been given to metaphysical source of origins. All religions will have been consigned to the heap of invention of primitive man bereft of understanding.

As one Theistic Evolutionist once said "Jesus didn't have the scientific knowledge we now have!"

You foolish Anglicans! Who has bewitched you?

Can't you even see the true God when He has revealed so much of Himself to you? Reflect for a moment what was done to Ms Castillo to retrieve her stem cells. Doesn't it take your mind back to the Genesis 2 incident when God created woman in the first place. God put Adam to sleep and took one of his ribs. Why? Because within the marrow of Adam's rib were his XY chromosomes. All God had to do was remove the Y chromosome and what happens? The X chromosome repeats itself and there you have woman - Eve. Additionally, if God, when removing Adam's rib, 'peeled' it out of the periosteum and left the periosteum intact then Adam's rib would have regrown.

The aforesaid criticism of Theistic Evolutionism is a simplistic observation but remains the valid vacuum Theistic Evolutionists will find themselves in.

On a greater level, stem cell research and manipulation makes it abundantly clear that life is much more than a minute glob of chemicals - despite the contention of Darwinists that life arose from the latter base ingredients.

The DNA that rides on stem cells is an ordered information system - a code for life - the genetic code. A fixity of code that makes it possible for researchers to conclude prospects for success in Ms Castillo's case. Had there not been any fixity, had there only been prospects of randomness then what would be the hope of pursuing this operation? Darwinism's key foundation is randomness. The genetic code is ordered to a certain fixity - it does allow variation within a kind - and it is why women don't give birth to crocodiles or other species.

When have you ever seen a coded system (ie information system) arise without an intelligent mind behind it? eg Morse Code, Rosetta Stone, music score, language, computer software/hardware and building plans. How much more then is it necessary for a super mind to be behind the genetic code for all living things?

Whoever heard or saw an intelligent mind purposely order through a process of redundancies? Yet such is what Theistic Evolutionists attribute to their creator. To these I say consider what the Lord Jesus Christ was doing when turning water into good quality wine in an instant through only a thought. Consider also the feeding of the 5,000 and the 4,000. Behold here is your Creator! In Him all things hold together (Col. 1:17).

You Theistic Evolutionists need to consider very carefully what you are doing. The creator you present to the world is not the true Creator. What you are doing is degrading Jesus Christ.

You are there among those who spat on the Lord Jesus Christ when He was under assault from the world.


Thursday, November 20, 2008

New Blog

Critias, thanks for your info about the new blog. I'll add it to the blog list soonish. I wonder if it's Moore plant?

Tuesday, November 18, 2008


Nice blast from the past in this article on Chesterton.

Funny how the basic arguments remain unrebutted, and ironically overlooked by the Lords of the Hill up at Moore College.

Saturday, November 15, 2008

Leupold Genesis part 4 date of comp

In answering the question, At what time was Genesis written? We are, of course, entirely, in the field of conjecture. It seems highly probable that the bulk, if not practically all of Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers, was written after the fashion of a kind of journal, especially those parts embodying specific words of direction given by God. This would naturally suggest some introductory work like Genesis, which could easily have been written by Moses during the time of the Wilderness Wanderings, which extended over thirty-eight years.

Since all the things recorded in Genesis transpired before Moses' day by more than four hundred years at the least, the question arises, Did Moses have sources available for compiling the Genesis account as we have it? We cannot deny the possibility that God may have revealed to Moses the entire subject matter of Genesis. On the other hand, since sources were, , no doubt, available and reliable, we see no reason why Moses should not have used all available material and, being guided in his task by the Spirit of inspiration, have produced an essential portion of divine revelation. For it seems highly probable that godly men preserved a reliable record of God's revelation and dealings with men, and that with most painstaking care. The Creation record was obtainable only by revelation, which revelation would have seemed essential for Adam. This as well as all other truth that was left to him, as well as a record of his own experiences required but few links in the chain of tradition to bring it down to Joseph's time. For a careful examination of the Biblical genealogies (Gen. 5 and 11) reveals that Adam lived till the time of Lamech; Lamech to the time of Shem; Shem to the time of Jacob; Jacob would, without a doubt, transmit what he knew to Joseph. Since even Abraham already lived in a literary age, and Judah carried a seal (Gen. 38:18), and Joseph was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, it seems utterly impossible that these men should have refrained from committing this valuable and reliable tradition to writing. Such tradition in written form Moses might well have found in his day and made extensive use of, nor would such use conflict with inspiration in as much as later historical books, especially Kings and Chronicles, testify to the abundant use of source materials.

Tuesday, November 11, 2008

Down Among The Dead Men.

Moore Theological College is the driving force behind the Episcopalian Diocese of Sydney for it is from this institution that Clergy are trained who go out to be the "Cure of Souls" and fulfil the Divine Mission in the Diocese. Indeed, it is the desire of many within the Diocese that graduates of Moore Theological College engage in church planting outside the Diocesan boundary.

More than that, some seek to have Moore graduates installed into theological institutions around the globe (doesn't that strike you as odd - a Diocese failing to achieve church growth within itself except, as some have reported here, without transfer growth from declining denominations, having the audacity to inflict its inadequacies on another Diocese which may already be experiencing what Sydney Diocese cannot achieve - church growth!). Consider the recent comments of Robert Doyle in the recent 'Moore Matters" publication where he says "Moore College has considerable experience preparing people for missionary service. ... When you take into account our networking with institutions other than Anglican, the list, is of course longer [he had earlier named some non Episcopalian theological colleges]. In a hostile world, and too often in the context of deeply unfaithful Christian denominations, we need to support each other. Several of these colleges have our graduates on faculty; many others have a history of contact, support and service. The abundant gifts and resources that God has blessed us with at Moore and amongst our constituency, and the law of the nearest neighbour, make it imperative that as far as God continues to give us opportunity, we need to produce more theological educators, and work outside our comfort zones."

Yeah! that'd be right! A Diocese in an African country has been blessed with a large congregation of believers who accept God at his word in Genesis and its reward is to be inflicted with the Moore collage of possible beliefs on origins none of which involves taking God at his word.

I wonder whether it ever enters the head of Moore 'Collage' (for that may be the more apt title) graduates that they might be more a hindrance to church growth than a help? A Diocese so reliant on what comes out of its theological institution for the growth of the Diocese ought easily be able to assess the health of its theological institution by the church growth seen shouldn't it? Of course! Well how does it look? Not good at all when you remove the "smoke and mirrors" of transfer growth from denominations experiencing advanced theological decline.

Perhaps you might hold out hope for the future because of the Diocesan Missionary Statement and the much anticipated (or is it feared?) Connect 09? Well, let me inform you of an incident giving clear insight into the future for the Diocese, its Mission and its worth to the church abroad. Remember, Moore Theological 'Collage' is the engine room for mission flowing from the Diocese.

I heard last Saturday morning on the radio three people speaking of the Newtown Festival proposed for the following day (Sunday 9th Nov). It was said that it was a wonderful festival and the previous year it had attracted 80,000 people. Now that is an impressive figure of attendance and certainly worth a look. So off I went the next day and in my journey there I noticed how remarkably close the festival site was to Moore 'Collage', only a few hundred metres from the institution. Upon entry to the site I was overwhelmed by the number of stalls and the multitude of people just browsing around, most of whom I suspect are "dead in their sins". Surely, you would think, there would be at least one church making the most of the opportunity (you know what Robert Doyle said - "as far as God continues to give us opportunity") especially Moore 'Collage' students, but no, my walk around the site failed to identify any stall there representing Moore 'Collage' or a church. What a lost opportunity! A crowd of over 80,000 people ignored by the alleged missionary college to the world and by local churches. I did see one fellow ambling through the milling crowd wearing a name tag with "St Stephens, Newtown" on it but for all it was worth he might have just stumbled out of nearby St Stephens Church, Newtown, having mistaken the festival crowd for the crowd around the church morning-tea urn.

What I did see, however, was group with a stall who were keenly proselytizing the passing crowd. It was a group calling themselves Sydney Atheists. So consider the scene. Here we are on the eve of Connect 09. Within a few hundred metres of the the engine room for mission within the Diocese is a crowd of over 80,000 people just browsing around and who is there to reach them? The Atheists!

My friends, I cannot help but have seen a vision of the effectiveness of Connect 09. In year 2010, when measuring the effectiveness of Connect 09, remember Newtown Festival 2008 ... Atheists 1 vs Moore 'Collage' 0.

Sam Drucker

Sunday, November 2, 2008

In God We Trust, well, it depends ...

The latest edition of Southern Cross, the Sydney Anglican monthly newspaper, has a story with a small and large caption. The small caption reads "DICKSON DOCO IN HISTORIC COUP". The large caption reads "Uncovered: groundbreaking find backs Jesus' divinity".

The article includes a photo of John Dickson squatting beside a floor mosaic containing a memorial inscription saying "God Jesus Christ". The Southern Cross article goes on to speak of the potential the mosaic provides for refuting claims from some atheists and popular authors that early Christians did not believe in the divinity of Jesus Christ.

Christians trusting in the Word of God have no cause to worry about archaeological finds. God's Word is true and we can only expect to find things of the world which confirm this.

There is something telling in this find and the comments of John Dickson.

He is recorded as saying "Here is extraordinary physical evidence from the century before Constantine and the Council of Nicaea that Christians, including Roman officials, were worshipping Jesus as divine." John Dickson gets excited because of the testimony of man (in this instance it was a woman, Akeptous, who commissioned the words "... offered this table in memorial of the God Jesus Christ") yet when questioned about the veracity of the Words of God at Exodus 20:8-11 John Dickson is reported to have said in Sydney a few years ago "Well, I believe God is using a literary device".

Makes you wonder doesn't it as to who he is prepared to give the greater authority to, man or God?


Saturday, November 1, 2008

Leupold Genesis part 3 Mosaic authorship

We shall not now trace down how the Old Testament in its later books historical as well as prophetic strongly supports the idea of the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch and by implication also of Genesis. The critic, misreading the evidence, misdates all these books, and so the argument means nothing to him. The man who is not affected by critical arguments can find proof more ample than we can here reproduce in the writings of Hengstenberg, Keil, Rupprecht and Moeller.

The support that the New Testament lends to our position is singularly strong and, for that matter, even decisive on the whole issue, at least for him who believes in the plenary inspiration of the Scriptures. It is sufficient in these introductory remarks merely to list the major passages as such, passages that all refer to the Mosaic authorship of the whole or of parts of the Pentateuch. In the Gospels we find: (Mt 8:4; 19:7, 8; 23:2; Mk 1:44; 7:10; 10:3, 4; 12:26); (Lu 5:14; 16:29, 31; 20:37; Joh 3:14; 5:45; 6:32; 7:19; 7:22, 23). Aside from these passages which are from the lips of Christ Himself there are the remarks of the evangelists found (Lu 24:27, 44; Joh 1:17). To the apostles must be ascribed the following words: (Ac 3:22; 13:39; 15:1, 5, 21; 26:22; 28:23; Ro 10:5, 19; 1Co 9:9; 2Co 3:15). To attribute ignorance on matters involved in literary criticism to Christ or to inspired apostles is unwarranted assumption. To class Christ's attitude as accommodation to prevalent opinion grows out of failure to apprehend the fact that Christ is absolute Truth. Any two or three of the above passages are sufficient to indicate to him that weighs their evidence that to Christ and to His apostles the Torah (the Pentateuch) was Mosaic.

Sunday, October 26, 2008

Sydney Anglicans' Towering Erection of Babel Proportions

Sydney Anglicans led by Archbishop Peter Jensen who hold to the abhorrent Theistic Evolution view of origins are either wittingly or unwittingly contributing to one of the most flagrant acts of idolatry and usurping of the authority of God that the world has ever seen.

Their attributing to God of a creative process replete with frustrations, mutations, disease, suffering, survival of the fittest and death is an assertion that God could not or would not create pure and complete in the beginning.

These Sydney Anglicans have ventured out upon the branch of faith and commenced cutting the branch behind them. The Atheists see this and are just waiting for the whole Church to do likewise and come crashing down. Once the Church has done this the Christian faith will have no credible argument against Atheism. The very mechanism Charles Darwin saw as the ordering of life and which prompted him to reject the God of Bible will never pass muster as the way of a God of love and omnipotency.

Compounding the problem for Sydney Anglicans are developments in gene technology. Scientific advances in genetic engineering and cloning point to the day when man will create life leading to a living organ or being. We are talking here of tens of years of development not millions of years.
On that day of achievement, Sydney Anglicans must bow to the might of Man and surrender all credibility that the Christian Church had claimed for the 'God' of the Bible because Man will have done far more efficiently and timely what the Church had claimed 'God' had done over millions of years.

Advances in gene technology have all the potential to revisit upon the world the arrogance of man demonstrated at Babel (Gen. 11). The Church will be defenceless if it relies on a corrupt explanation of how God created.

However, the picture is not so bleak. The one true God is not the product of faulty imaginings of the Anglican Archbishop of Sydney and his followers. God will not submit to the elevation of man beyond his place. God will retain a remnant who will not bow the knee to Baal. Small it may be for a time but that remnant will survive and be blessed to multiply at the hand of the Lord. These are they who trust in the Word of God and will not reinterpret what God has clearly said.


Monday, October 20, 2008

Leupold Genesis part 2 author

Genesis contains no statement as to who its author was. Yet we hold very definitely to the conviction that Moses wrote Genesis as well as the rest of the Pentateuch, except (Deut. 34). In our day such a position is regarded as so utterly outmoded that we must indicate, at least briefly, what grounds we have for standing thus. Our grounds are those which have satisfied conservative scholarship in the church throughout the ages. Neither is the group of those who still accept these arguments so inconsiderable as critics would have us believe.

The internal evidence of the Pentateuch runs as follows. In Exodus the passages (17:14; 24:4; 34:27), if rightly construed, indicate that Moses wrote more than the specific passages that appear under immediate consideration, in fact, all of Exodus. In like manner the numerous statements of Leviticus to the effect that "the Lord spake unto Moses" ("and unto Aaron"), such as (Le 1:1; 4:1; 6:1, 8, 19, 24; 7:22, 28; 8:1), etc., again, if rightly construed, lead to the same result, in fact, cover Leviticus. For why should the exact nature of the revelation be emphasized, unless it be presupposed that this revelation was immediately conserved in writing in each case? In fact, the assumption that these directions were not committed to writing is most unnatural. The same argument applies to much of what is found in Numbers; but in this book the special portion that came by immediate revelation requires the background of the rest of the historical material of the book. (Nu 33:2) is the only passage that refers to the fact that Moses wrote, a statement inserted at this point in order to stamp even what might seem too unimportant to record as traceable to Moses. In Deuteronomy a comparison of the following passages establishes the Mosaic authorship: (De 1:1; 17:18,19; 27:1-8; 31:9; 31:24). If, then, on the basis of the evidence found in these four books we may very reasonably conclude that they were written by Moses, the conclusion follows very properly that none other than the author of these later four books would have been so suitable as the author for Genesis also. Certainly such a conclusion is far more reasonable than that Genesis--or for that matter the entire Pentateuch--is to be ascribed to another one of these genial Nobodies of whom criticism has a large number in reserve as authors.

Tuesday, October 14, 2008

Do the Sydney Anglican Heretics successfully wrest the epistemological highground from orthodoxy?

To all concerned, sorry for the delay but I have had to attend to some fairly urgent matters of health recently and this has eaten up my spare time. My mother, very early on, and doctor, most recently warned me about the dangers of reinserting my navel fluff. And now I reap the consequences.

1. I believe the following is a fair representation of Anonymous’ case against me.

a. I offered Kay’s paper as proof and argued that literary devices don’t
negate the claim of a passage to being history.
b. Dickson proposed the inclusion of so many literary devices means
Genesis 1 isn’t history.
c. I overlooked the subtlety of Dickson’s argument.
d. I‘m dumb as it’s not true truth.
e. QED, Dickson’s case is subtle and accurate.
f. Genesis 1 isn’t an historical report because of the large number of
literary devices
g. It is right to say that Kay’s case lacks a strong and sharp disproof to
Dickson’s thesis that Genesis is non-history.

2. To refresh everyone’s memory what Dickson wrote: “Genesis 1…is composed in a style quite different from the ‘historical narrative’ of, say, the Gospels in their accounts of Jesus’ resurrection, for instance…Genesis 1, on the other hand, is not written in the style we normally associate with historical report. It is difficult even to describe the passage as prose. The original Hebrew of this passage is marked by intricate structure, rhythm, parallelism, chiasmus, repetition and the lavish use of number symbolism. These features are not observed together in those parts of the Bible we recognize as historical prose…I will, however, draw attention to the number symbolism present in our passage. [John gives a number of examples of the number 7 and its multiples in the text and then concludes with] The artistry of the chapter is stunning and, to ancient readers, unmistakable. It casts the creation as a work of art, sharing in the perfection of God and deriving from him. My point is obvious: short of including a prescript for the benefit of modern readers the original author could hardly have made it clearer that his message is being conveyed through literary rather than prosaic means.”

So, clearly Dickson is saying from “the lavish use of number[s]” alone that one can conclude Genesis 1 is not historiography. I’ll address this in a moment but, as you stated elsewhere, what’s good for a goose is good for the gander, and so I think it was entirely reasonable for me to argue (as Kay had in his paper) that individually these literary devices do not necessarily convey non-history.

Furthermore, as you have implied, these devices are found in historiographic passages. (Although, Dickson, by not actually exploring this “incidental” detail, seems hell-bent on not providing examples for the reader so they can at least make up their own mind as to the strength of his case. After all, if, for example, a clearly historiographic section of one of the Gospels were to contain several literary devices, I would assume that even the most zealously sycophantic of Dickson’s backers would be less inclined to argue for the soundness of his thesis. Hmmm, maybe not so on second thought, given their hitherto lending of unconditional support for just about any old excuse that maintains their obduracy and love of heresy) I would obviously concur. So the problem for you and Dickson is this: If the inclusion of one device does not in and of itself transform historiography to non-historiography, and the addition of another similarly doesn’t, and another etc etc don’t, why would the inclusion of all 6 suddenly tip the scale? If you reply that this “uniqueness” is the very characteristic that does turn historiography to non-historiography, isn’t that just simply a case of question-begging? Wouldn’t one need to provide several examples from other sources, particularly non-biblical ones, which demonstrate the soundness of this proposition?

Looking at it in a not entirely different way, Dickson has tacitly stated that, all other things being equal,

(i) 1 Literary Device = Historiography,
(ii) LD+LD = Historiography
(iii) LD+LD+LD = Historiography
(iv) LD+LD+LD+LD = Historiography
(v) LD+LD+LD+LD+LD = Historiography

yet he contends that

LD+LD+LD+LD+LD+LD ≠ Historiography

I am at a loss how 1,2,3,4, or even 5 pluses add up to a plus but an additional 6th makes it a zero. Along with destroying biblical facts, you guys seem to have the same menacing attitude to maths. This reminds me of Dallas Willard’s comment: “[U]nsound arguments are not to be expected by their collective force to prove a conclusion which none can establish by themselves."

3. So since you’ve admitted that literary devices are utilised by the author in historiography, where does Dickson (and you) draw the cut-off line? It seems that since these devices are everywhere, in historical prose and poetry alike, then the answer must be, “Well, anywhere I damn well please!” This of course demonstrates the arbitrary nature of your argument. That, putatively, these devices only appear in such numbers in Genesis 1 and no where else is not the clincher you imagine it to be. After all, breathing over its neck is a passage of historical narrative that has one less literary device. If none of the ancients were bothered with their inclusion why should we listen to Dickson and a nobody called Anonymous. All this to me seems like something new to tickle those who are easily dissuaded from the plain, straightforward, uncomplicated historical truth of the first page of God’s revelation to us. That the common ploughboy has never seen this wolf-in-sheep’s clothing “truth” you’re presently serving up to the Church only strengthens our resolve to root you heretics out.

4. While we are on the subject, I’d like to point out that neither Dickson nor Anon never actually identify where these literary devices appear in the text. I suppose we’re to just take their word that all 6 actually appear in Genesis.

So, would either of these two heretics (or the Dickson sycophants over in the Sydney Diocese) change their view if just one of the mooted devices didn’t appear in Genesis 1? That is, based on Dickson’s thesis, if the sum total of these devices were 5, would these heretics accept Genesis 1 as history or can nothing falsify Dickson’s proposition?

5. Just on this issue, a few years ago an Israeli Oxford Hebraist academic informed me that sustained rhythm, the type that non-prose should contain if it does have rhythm, is not in Genesis 1. What rhythm there is, is far too brief to be important and is a chance by-product of speech in general. In other words, one would be drawing a really long bow to claim that rhythm is a salient literary device in Genesis 1.

6. But just to fulfil my epistemic obligation, let me provide you with a few passages where there is a preponderance of literary devices. To make it easier for me I’ll be borrowing considerably from Dickson’s paper.

The Flood Narrative

It is well known that in Hebrew thought the number 8 symbolises new beginnings, resurrection or regeneration and 13 betrayal. A well-known example for the former is many baptismal fonts are eight-sided, as is the baptismal cross, while the latter is the number of people at the Last Supper.

In the narrative of Noah, which contains the Flood account, multiples of 8 appear in extraordinary ways. For ancient readers, who were accustomed to taking notice of such things, these multiples of 8 conveyed a powerful message. Its omnipresence in many chapters of the Bible makes an unmistakable point about the ultimate authorship of the Bible itself. Consider the following in this account:

a. The “berit” (covenant) stem appears 8 times
b. The number of people saved on the ark was 8
c. The sign of the covenant, “qeshet” (rainbow) has a numerical value in Hebrew
of 800
d. The Flood was 40 days (i.e. 5 x 8) upon the earth
e. Noah waited another 40 days until he opened the window
f. He then sent out a raven, numerical value 272 (i.e. 8 x 32)
g. Noah’s name is occasionally spelled with a vav and thus his name has a
numerical value of 64 i.e. 8 x 8
h. From Adam to Noah’s Flood there were 1656 (207 x 8) years

And btw,
i. Indeed, Jesus’ very name in Greek numerical values has the value of 888,
which also equals in Hebrew Yeshoth Elohenu i.e. Our God’s Salvation
j. Jesus appeared to Thomas on the 8th day
k. Pistis (faith) has the same numerical value as Kurios (Lord) i.e. 800

As to the number 7,

a. The clean beasts were taken on in lots of seven
b. Assuming 30 days in a lunar month, the fountains of the deep were broken up
on the 2nd month, 17th day of Noah’s 600th year i.e. the 77th day
c. The Ark came to rest in the 7th month
d. The tops of the mountains were seen on the first day of the 10th month i.e. (
10 x 30) +1 = 301 = 43 x 7
e. The seventh occurrence of the name Noah is in Genesis 6:9 and here he is
called ‘perfect’. The Hebrew word here is thammim which has a numerical
value of 490 i.e. 70 x 7
f. The number of times that God spoke to Noah was seven.

Any other literary devices? Sure.

• A play on words: In Hebrew the name ‘Noah’ is an anagram of ‘Grace’. The first appearance of ‘grace’ is in Genesis 6:8: ‘But Noah found grace in the eyes of YHWH’. The numerical value of YHWH is 26. The word ‘grace’ is found in 26 (13 x 2) verses in Torah.

• Parallelism: In Genesis 6:9 "perfect in his generations" acts as a parallel thought to Noah being "a just man."
• Parallelism: In Genesis 7: 6-10, 11-16 this device can be discerned as re-emphasising and enlarging upon the same ideas.
• Chiasmus:
Genesis 7:10 – And after the seven days the floodwaters came on the earth.
Genesis 7:12 - And rain fell on the earth forty days and forty nights.
Genesis 7:24 – The waters flooded the earth for a hundred and fifty days.
Genesis 8:3 – The water receded steadily from the earth. At the end of the hundred and fifty days the water had gone down,
Genesis 8:6 - After forty days Noah opened the window he had made in the ark
Genesis 8:10 - He waited seven more days and again sent out the dove from the ark.

Here’s another:
Introduction (6:9-10)
1. Violence on the earth (6:11-12)
2. First speech: intent to destroy earth (6:13-22)
3. Second speech: go into the ark (7:1-10)
4. The Flood starts (7:11-16)
5. The flood rises (7:17-24)
Climax-God remembers Noah (8:1a)
5a. The Flood recedes (8:1b-5)
4a. Drying off of the earth (8:6-14)
3a. Third speech: leave the ark (8:15-19)
2a. Will not destroy earth again (8:20-22)
1a. Fourth speech: the covenant (9:1-17)
Conclusion (9:18-19)

There is a chiastic structure in the genealogy: Noah's sons are listed in this order: Shem, Ham, and Japheth; then they are discussed in reverse order.

• Repetition
(i) The destruction of life
(ii) Establishment of the covenant
(iii) The types of animals on the ark

What then can we at this blog conclude? All of this definitely will convince the heretics in the Sydney Anglo Fun Park that Noah’s story and the Flood specifically are not historical or historiography.

When I previously pointed out that the Flood account contains all the features Dickson has said tell the reader to think ‘non-history/non-historiography’, Anon’s remark was “ROFL.” In fact, Anon went on to suggest these chapters of Genesis were on the sae level as a fairy tale like Goldilocks and the 3 bears.

I suspect Anon will mock my argument, as he has done previously (he poured scorn on my comment and said I had a weak argument when I offered Jesus’ and Peter’s testimonies as proof that the Bible’s account of the Flood should be taken as history), but this behaviour is what one expects from heretics. As we progress through the Bible more and more chapters start to be transformed from historiography to myth or some other liberal nomenclature.


• Numbers

a. There are 613 commandments in Torah. Of these 248 are positive and 365 negative. Abraham, the first Jew, was called righteous before God and is regarded as the paradigm of perfection. His name has the number value of 248 (31x 8), the number of positive commandments.

b. The son of Abraham, Yizhak, has 4 letters to his name each with a numerical value of 10, 90, 8 and 100 respectively. The first refers to the 10 commandments, the second to the age of Sarah when he was born, the third, the age at his circumcision and the last to the age of Abraham when he was born. A miracle performed for a mother and father was for the sake of a child who would be circumcised and enter a covenant.

c. Concerning the number 13, circumcision for Ishmael was carried out when he was 13, the word for covenant, berit, is mentioned 13 times in Genesis 17, the chapter which sets out the circumcision command.

d. In Genesis 14:14 there are 318 men who went out to rescue his relative. Interesting, Eliezer the servant of Abraham, the “heir” of Abraham, has a numerical value for his name of 318.

• Chiasmus:

A Display of faith: Abram leaves his homeland; the first promise 11:31–12:3
B Abram sojourns in Canaan 12:4-9
C The stay in Egypt; Abram passes Sarai off as his sister 12:10-20
D The separation of Abram, who has the promise, from Lot, who does not
have the promise 13:1-18
E The rescue of Lot 14:1-24
F Abram’s fears of infertility are allayed by the promise of a
son; God makes a covenant 15:1-21
G Sarai’s attempt to get a son: Ishmael 16:1-16
H THE COVENANT; Abram’s new name,
etc. 17:1-10
G´ Circumcision; the rejection of Ishmael and the
promise of a son through Sarah 17:9-27
F´ Sarah is told of the promise of a son, despite her fears of
infertility 18:1-15
E´ The rescue of Lot 18:16–19:38
D´ The stay in Gerar; Abraham passes Sarah off as his sister 20:1-18
C´ The birth of Isaac; the separation of Isaac, the child of the promise, from
Ishmael, the child outside the promise 21:1-21
B´ Abraham sojourns among the Philistines 21:22-34
A´ Display of faith: Abraham is willing to sacrifice Isaac; the final promise 22:1-19

And there are chiasms within chiasms. For example, Genesis 12:16 appears as an inventory but has been arranged chiastically. So, if Dickson’s rule is true then Abram’s sheep are not referring to historic sheep but artistic ones.

There are also significant and lavish use of numbers concerning the other patriarchs etc

a. Adam is 130 when he begot Seth and lives another 800 years.
b. Jacob has 1 daughter and 8 sons from his wives and 4 sons from the
shefahot i.e. 13 children.
c. When Jacob’s name is changed to Israel by God, then last time he is called
Jacob is the 130th appearance of Jacob’s name in Torah.
d. Jacob’s age in front of Pharaoh is 130 while Moses was 80
e. The only ages given for Joseph are 17, 30, 110, gaps of 13 and 80
f. Sarah was at her death 127 years old = 100 + 20 + 7. The gaps here are 80
and 13.
g. Circumcision is on the 8th day.

And I am more than sure that if I could be bothered – which I am definitely not – I could find far too many examples of devices which Kay listed in his article, including, parallel plotting with its ostensible appearance of simultaneity, delayed action and outcomes, asymmetrical and ironic juxtapositioning, convergence and retrospective alignment, sequential twists, temporal shifts, the omitting or ambiguating of causal links, temporal gaps and blanks, analogous or repetitive themes and incidents, alternation whereby the narrative sequence zig-zags between objective simultaneities, suspense-driven episodes, deep interlinear polarities of theme, foreclosure or premature curtain-dropping which “jumps ahead” in absolute time in order to synchronize effects, the establishment of contextual hierarchies of importance, shifts in focus, complex word plays, parataxis, and interepisodic suspense.

Matthew’s Gospel

The first 17 verses of the New Testament (The Gospel of Matthew) deals with a single principal subject: the genealogy of Jesus Christ. It contains 72 Greek vocabulary words in these initial 17 versus. The following structures are supposedly found.
• The number of words which are nouns is exactly 56, or 7 x 8. The Greek
word "the" occurs most frequently in the passage: exactly 56 times, or 7 x 8.
• The number of different forms in which the article "the" occurs is exactly 7
• There are two main sections in the passage: verse 1-11 and 12-17. In the
first main section, the number of Greek vocabulary words used is 49, or 7 x 7 Of these 49 words, the number of those beginning with a vowel is 28, or 7 x 4
• The number of words beginning with a consonant is 21, or 7 x 3. The total
number of letters in these 49 words is exactly 266, or 7 x 38-exactly.
• The numbers of vowels among these 266 letters is 140, or 7 x 20. The number
of consonants is 126, or 7 x 18-exactly.
• Of these 49 words, the number of words which occur more than once is 35, or 7 x 5.
• The number of words occurring only once is 14, or 7 x2.
• The number of words which occur in only one form is exactly 42, or 7 x 6.
• The number of words appearing in more than one form is also 7.
• The number of 49 Greek vocabulary words which are nouns is 42, or 7 x 6.
• The number of words which are not nouns is 7.
• Of the nouns, 35 are proper names, or 7 x 5. These 35 nouns are used 63
times, or 7 x 9.
• The number of male names is 28, or 7 x 4. These male names occur 56 times or
7 x 8.
• The number of names which is not male is 7.
• Three women are mentioned-Tamar, Rahab, and Ruth. The number of Greek
letters in these three names is 14, or 7 x 2.
• The number of compound nouns is 7. The number of Greek letters in these 7
nouns is 49, or 7 x 7.
• Only one city is named in this passage, Babylon, which in Greek contains
exactly 7 letters.

Matthew’s sectional use of 14 generations has been mooted to reflect the then current belief of the number of High Priests from Aaron to the establishment of Solomon’s Temple, from the establishment from the Temple until Jaddua, the last High Priest mentioned in Scripture. Others have argued that in his 3x14 division Matthew is reflecting a then already widely-held belief of a universal world-week patterned after the seven days of creation (i.e. 6x7), six “days” followed by a Messianic age i.e. a Sabbath, or a pattern following the formula used in Daniel. Whatever the case may be, it was not accidental.

Matthew begins the Gospel with a chiastic form in 1:1,17 (ABC, genealogy, C'B'A') for the genealogy in vv 2-16. In this case each half of the frame summarises the significance of the enclosed genealogy. There is also a chiastic appearance of Abraham and David in his genealogy i.e.

Jesus 1.1b
David 1.1c
Abraham 1.1d

Breck holds that 3:1-17 and 4:1-17 form a chiasm centred upon John’s claim that Jesus will baptise with the Holy Spirit and fire, enclosed by 2 expressions of “repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand.”

Fenton and Gaechter have argued that all of Matthew is chiastic, the latter also pointing out the numerical patterns that control the several parts of the whole. Others have stated that Matthew has complicated circles of chiasms within chiasms, and these too have chiasms controlling them.
Furthermore some have argued that there is a typological literary reflection in Matthew’s Gospel which looks something like this:

Matthew OT

1:1: Book of Genesis Gen 2:4; 5:1
(i.e. toledoth and sepher

1:1-17: son of Abraham Gen 12-26

1:18-25: Joseph the dreamer Gen 37

2:1-12: Magi Nations to Egypt for Joseph

2:13-15: Herod kills children Exod 1-2: Pharaoh
kills children

2:14: Jesus rescued, flees Exod 2: Moses rescued,

2:19-23: Jesus returns to Israel Exod 3-4: Moses returns
to Egypt

3:1-12: John announces judgment Exod 5-12: Moses/Aaron
bring judgment

3:13-17: Jesus passes through Exod 14: Parting of the
waters waters of the Red Sea

4:1-11: Temptation in wilderness Exod 17-19: Travel in Sinai

4:18-22: Jesus calls disciples Exod 18: Moses appoints

chs. 5-7: Sermon on the Mount Ex 19 ff Sinai and the
and various explanations of Law giving of Torah

Matthew also demonstrates a reliance on the number three throughout his Gospel: 3 temptations, 3 illustrations of righteousness, 3 miracles of healing, 3 miracles of power, 3 miracles of restoration, threefold ‘fear not’, threefold answer to the question about fasting, 3 complaints of the Pharisees, 3 ‘is not worthy of me’, 3 parables of sowing, 3 sayings about ‘little ones’, 3 questions, 3 parables of warning, 3 prayers at Gethsemane, 3 denials of Peter, 3 petitions in the Lord’s Prayer, 3 aspirations in the Lord’s Prayer. There is also a triadic structure to the Sermon on the Mount which reflects a well-known triad of Jewish piety preserved in mAb. 1:2 (446).

There are also 7 demons, seven loaves, seven baskets, sevenfold forgiveness, seven brothers and seven woes. As Marshall Johnson wrote, “Considered in the light of this tendency toward numerical structure, the arrangement of the genealogy into 3 x 14 or 3 x 7 x 2 seems entirely congruous. The evangelist draws attention to the form of the genealogy because it is a survey of pre-Messianic history intending to underscore the predetermined character of the coming of Jesus, the Messiah.”

From the list of additional literary device Kaye supplied, in the first few chapters of Matthew one can see the following utilised by the Gospel writer when composing the text: parallel plotting with its ostensible appearance of simultaneity, delayed action and outcomes, convergence and retrospective alignment, sequential twists, temporal shifts, temporal gaps and blanks, analogous or repetitive themes and incidents, alternation whereby the narrative sequence zig-zags between objective simultaneities, suspense-driven episodes, parataxis.

So, what would a Sydney Anglican Evangelical following the much-heralded Dickson rule be forced to conclude? Matthew is neither prose nor historiography. Of course, similar material could be raised with reference to the other Gospels and similar conclusions stated.

As a liberal Dickson looks toward structure and not content (i.e. Don’t confuse me with the facts!). Kaye pointed out that Hebrew prose can be identified by the use of particular grammatical constructs. Anon and Dickson are oblivious to this (maybe they don’t read footnotes?) or choose to ignore it because it would destroy their case. Kaye wrote: “The particles ’et (the sign of the definite direct object), ’ašer (the relative pronoun), and ha- (the definite article) all have been identified as prosaic elements, not common in or suitable to poetry....In general, these particulars occur six to eight times more frequently in prose passages than in poetic ones. Statistically the results are even more important, since they establish beyond cavil that the occurrence of these particles is a valid discriminant, and the difference in distribution reflects an intrinsic distinction between prose and poetry. All these elements are present in Genesis 1.”

7. I believe Anon misunderstood a statement I made or maybe I didn’t explain it clearly enough. I suggested that liberals saw various parts of the Bible as historiographic which were the very sections that contain the literary devices that Anon and Dickson trumpet as being indicative of non-history. My point was not that these liberals BELIEVED these sections to be actual history, but that they saw it had the form of history i.e. historiographic i.e it resembled history writing. What the majority of liberals then do is provide a reason, any reason, to give their liberalism a veneer of credibility. In like manner, Dickson and Anon throw up this specious and contrived link between literary devices and non-history and non-historiography. That both these people state their case in a circular fashion and never once actually give evidence for it is lost in the debate. Anon further arrogantly tries to make us orthodox prove our case, another clear indication of his liberal and heretical view of Scripture. Anon, like Dickson, never actually supply any evidence for their belief.

8. So that clarified, Anon wanted to see some evidence that liberals accept the earliest parts of the Bible as historiography.
(i) Meir Sternberg understood the Bible to “transmute even invention into the stuff of history”
(ii) Robert Alter, the well-known literary theorist, calls Genesis and Exodus “fiction in the guise of history” and “historicized prose fiction.” Elsewhere he writes concerning Judges, “It is perhaps less historicized fiction than fictionalized history – history in which the feeling and the meaning of events are concretely realised through the technical resources of prose fiction.”
(iii) In other words, even an uber-liberal like Alter can see that this writing possesses the appearance of historiography, though, of course, denying its objective factuality. Dickson, however, denies that Genesis 1 even takes the form of historiography because – and let’s take him at his word here – it’s lumbered with too many literary devices. At least Alter is a tad more convincing because he denies it’s true but says it was written to appear like history. This is not all that dissimilar to the High Priest of atheism Richard Dawkins who many years ago, speaking to Phillip Adams, stated something to the effect that he understood from the text that the writers of Genesis 1 believed that what they wrote was literal and had occurred, unlike the dishonest contemporary Christian interpreters who try to make days seem like ages.
(iv) Even Adele Berlin agreed that despite the Bible being fiction and denying the miraculous, the stories were presented in a realistic narrative. Go figure, Anon.

9. Just a comment on a rather confusing point Anon made. He said that I was “incapable…of escaping from the simplistic but entirely spurious disjunction [I]’ve sought to establish between literal history and non-history.”
Now, I may have misunderstood Anon’s point here, but it seems to me that this is exactly the liberal cake-and-eat-it-too doctrine that the Sydney Anglo Heretics are becoming quickly famous for. I believe it was Warwick who first pointed this out on the Blog. They call Genesis 1 truth but not true truth. Anon’s comment seems to be a variation on this.
In any case, this is begging the question that Genesis is not historiography and history, and is another example of the hubris of these heretics who, while denying the traditional Church’s statements concerning the historical truth of Genesis 1, maintain that theirs is the right and only view of Genesis 1. They throw in all the usual red-herrings like the Good Samaritan Parable and pose all the hollow questions like “Was there really a certain man on the road to Jericho?” etc, as though this actually nullifies Genesis 1’s claim to being an accurate record of the Earth’s history.
No, Anon, it’s you and your postmodern, neo-orthodox mates over there in Anglo ga-ga land which have to prove the novel idea that there is no disjunction between literal history and non-history.

10. In summation, it is apparent that people like Anon and Dickson believe that art in writing spells the death of historiography. Or it may be the case that too much art is incommensurate with the writing of history (neither ever flesh their argument out). Now, maybe this is the case in contemporary history writing – I am not sufficiently adept to pass opinion – but, and my case presented here is hardly exhaustive, it would hardly seem that this was true in antiquity. Why, then, would Anon and Dickson make such a song and dance concerning literary devices in Genesis 1 when these, and more, appear throughout Scripture far more abundantly and in exceedingly more complex application? The answer is hardly rocket science. They disingenuously are led by the conclusions of materialistic science, notwithstanding their protestations to the contrary. It’s heresy business as usual with these guys!
I want to finish this thread by quoting the arch-liberal Bultmann. He wrote that “the literary devices with which [the author of John’s Gospel] builds the discussions—the use of ambiguous concepts and statements to elicit misunderstandings—are indicative that he lives within the sphere of Gnostic-dualistic thinking.” These ambiguities and misunderstandings are not “merely formal technical devices. Rather, they are the expression of his underlying dualistic view.”

As we know, Bultmann did not really care for any talk of the Gospels being history, just as Dickson and his zealous supporters truck no argument that Genesis 1 is history. It is indeed one of those queer coincidences of history that both Bultmann and Dickson identify the catalyst for the removal of the historical as the inclusion of literary devices by the authors of the biblical text.

11. Conclusion

Let me borrow heavily from Dickson’s own argument and, mutatis mutandis, present a more likely conclusion:

The chronology of the chapter is stunning and, to ancient readers, unmistakable. It casts the creation as a work of history, sharing in the temporality of God and deriving from him. My point is obvious: the inclusion of a prescript for the benefit of modern readers would be unnecessary because the original author could hardly have made it clearer that his message is historiographic rather than literary and ahistoric.”

Moreover, one can’t but help be reminded of C.S. Lewis’ trenchant censure of these Anglicans who seek to present another Gospel, a Gospel that robs Christ of his nature and office:

“Whatever these men may be as Biblical critics, I distrust them as critics. They seem to me to lack literary judgement, to be imperceptive about the very quality of the texts they are reading…These men ask me to believe they can read between the lines of the old texts; the evidence is their obvious inability to read (in any sense worth discussing) the lines themselves. They claim to see fern-seed and can’t see an elephant ten yards away in broad daylight.”

Finally, a word from Peter, the disciple who was mocked by Anon:

"First of all you must realise that in the last days cynical mockers will undoubtedly come - men whose only guide in life is what they want for themselves - and they will say, "Everything remains as it was since the beginning of creation!" They are deliberately shutting their eyes to the fact that there were heavens in the old days and an earth formed by God's command out of water and by water. It was by water that the world of those days was deluged and destroyed."

Monday, October 13, 2008

Losing focus in a vaccine hocus-pocus

Article in the Daily Telegraph by Garry Linnell, Editor-at-large
October 10, 2008:

GO figure. We live in a time when science can tell us how old and large the universe is, yet the demand for psychics, fortune tellers and horoscopes has never been higher.

Oddly, what’s going hand in hand is that rejection of Christian theism brings with it the destruction of the rationalist basis for science; because its Christian realism that defeats superstition (because of its trust in Genesis 1, fundamentally) and not science! Science, as we know it today is the result of, amongst other things, Christian realism, as has been discussed elsewhere in this blog; so remove the basis, you remove the result, and end up with the unintended consequence: more superstition.

This is even evident at a popular level in Christian churches that have become enamored with the Enneagram, MBTI type ‘black magic’, NLP, the martial arts, yoga and so on. As they reject Genesis 1 and its grounded rationalism, they will more and more succumb to mysticism and fall under the influence of anti-rational superstitions.

Friday, October 10, 2008

Studies in Genesis 1

An Anglican church on Sydney's North Shore is studying Gen 1. If the sermons are any good, I'll give a link, if not...

But here's the study.

Let's discuss the answers.

1. For starters: How does our worldview/culture 'change' the way in which we interpret and understand texts?

2. Read Genesis 1:1-2
What was there before creation? How is creation initiatied?

3. What state of creation is verse 2 explaining? How does it help us understand God's creating as an ordered process?

4. Read Genesis 1:1-25
Looking through each of the 6 days of creation how do we see the following pattern repeated:

-+ An announcement: "God said"

-+ An imperative: "Let there be"

-+ A report: "and it was so"

-+ An evaluation: "And God saw that it was..."

5. What does this pattern tell us of the importance of God's word in creation?

6. What does this pattern tell us of God's involvement and purpose in creation? Is he pleased with it? Is it good?

7. How do the following days seem to correspond to each other in the creation process (what is created in each and what relationship do they have):

-+ 7a. Days 1 and 4

-+ 7b. Days 2 and 5

-+ 7c. Days 3 and 6

8. How does this relationship between the days answer the problem in vs. 2 of the earth being 'formless and empty'?

9. What picture of God begins to emerge in Genesis 1? How might this stand against current 'pictures' of God?

10. To discuss: What is the purpose of Genesis 1? How does our worldview help or hinder the way in which we read and interpret it?

Tuesday, October 7, 2008

"This is the Temple of the Lord, the Temple of the Lord, the Temple of the Lord!" (Jer. 7:4)

I note the most recent discussion pointing to many in the Episcopalian Diocese of Sydney corrupting the biblical revelation of God as Creator.

I once posted a blog asserting the danger of the Diocese moving along the path toward Apostasy from the Gospel in what may otherwise be seen as Partial Apostasy. In light of recent discussion it is apt to revisit the works of John Owen, Puritan, in "Apostasy from the Gospel", Puritan Paperbacks, Published by Banner of Truth Trust, 1992.

Speaking on the topic of "Apostasy from the Doctrine of the Gospel" on pages 92, Owen says "So none will remain constantly faithful to Christ who is not able to spiritually discern the glory of his person and his offices" and on page 93, "The whole foundation of all gospel faith rests in the glory of Christ's person and offices (Heb. 1:2, 3; Col. 1:15-19)".

It is clearly observed that John Owen makes the aforesaid assertions drawing upon Scripture passages citing the office of Jesus Christ as Creator.

Please, please, Episcopalian Diocese of Sydney, the alarm bells are ringing and you must awake to the dangerous position in which you are to be found. You do not listen to us but surely you will listen to the bells activated by sound biblical scholar and Puritan, John Owen.

Listen further. On the subject of "If we would defend ourselves from all temptations to apostasy, then we must beware of national sins" John Owen says (on pages 163 & 164) "... We must be led by Christ and his Word and not by popular opinion, which says 'Everybody does it!' God's Word is clear. 'Come out from among them and be separate, says the Lord. Do not touch what is unclean and I will receive you' (2 Cor 6:17) ... We must be among them but not of them and certainly not corrupted by them and by national sins."

"If Christians will immerse themselves in the world so as to learn their ways and be led by their opinions, they will be carried with them into eternal perdition."

"Under the Old Testament, God could not trust his people to live among other people, nor others to live among them, knowing how unable they were to withstand the temptations to conform to the ways of the ungodly. So all nations were to be driven out of Canaan (Lev. 18:30). The neglect of God's wisdom and the transgressions of his will by mixing with other nations and learning their ways led to their ruin."

"Under the gospel, God's true church is to be kept pure and holy by the Holy Spirit dwelling in them and among them. God now entrusts all that are called to the obedience of faith to live in the midst of the nations. Yet he still warns them of its dangers and requires them to watch and keep themselves unspotted from the world (James 1:27)."

"Objection. 'But if we do not conform in some things to the world's customs, we shall be despised in the world and nobody will take any notice of us.' Answer. What I mean is that submission to the world in yielding to its predominant vices, especially those vices which affect us in the place and time in which we live. Before we were converted, we did the popular thing, so now they think it strange that we no longer walk with them, and so they speak evil of us (1 Pet. 4:3,4). Do we really wish to renounce God and Christ in order to be popular with the world? (1 John 2:15-17: James 4:4)."

"What we must do is to outdo the world in honesty, kindness, gentleness, usefulness, moderation of spirit, charity, compassion and readiness to help others in their need."

Many and varied are the sins of the world and expressed all around us in what John Owen would call national sins. One of these national sins in our time is that of believing an interpretation of origins which is totally incompatible with the revelation of Jesus Christ Incarnate and in Word. Any attempt to marry the 'national' interpretation of creation with the revelation of Jesus Christ is nothing but that heinous sin of synchretism applied by Israel of old. It was an abomination to the Lord then and surely remains an abomination to Him now.

Don't do it! Don't dare do it, Sydney Episcopalians. Don't cast this warning aside with thoughts that John Owen and the Scripture passages he quoted refer to fleshly lusts and sins and have no relevance to the view that Jesus Christ used evolutionary processes to create. Idolatry is a sin of the flesh. It is man developing an image of God using elements of the world and is an inferior representation of the true God - man making his own god. To develop an image of Jesus Christ totally contrary to how he acted in His creative and recreative activity - as recorded in Scripture - and worse, to ascribe to Him a dead-end, suffering and death riddled process of creation is to ascribe to Him a beastly nature which is a great insult to Him. It is a vile sin of the flesh you engage in.

This is a serious problem. You must repent of it. As much as a Cancer has to be cut out early for life to be sustained so must this abomination be cut out early to prevent its course being fatal.

In closing, I draw everyone's attention to the final quote I have provided from John Owen. This subject in which we are engaged is extremely serious but let us conduct ourselves in a manner which outdoes "the world in honesty, kindness, gentleness, usefulness, moderation of spirit, charity, compassion and readiness to help others in their need". There is a lesson for me here as much as anyone else.

Sam Drucker

Saturday, October 4, 2008

Sleeping with the atheists

Did anyone catch last Saturday’s Herald an article ‘When extinction becomes a heresy’? It was an edited extract from an essay titled ‘Empathy for the enemy’, which, as I’ll soon explain, is manifestly ironic.

The article was jam-packed with the usual maudlin and irrational animal “rights” rhetoric that is endlessly promoted nowadays in mainstream media. More outrageous was its attempt to compare the necessary elimination of rabbits and foxes from Australia with the barbarism of Auschwitz. This elevation of animal rights, I may add, is entirely consistent with Nazi practices and their obsession with all things green.

Notwithstanding this attempt to muddy the clear line of separation between man and animal, attention needs to be called to the only theoretical basis on which such a move can be reasonably postulated, that being the “truth” of evolution. In other words, all life has common ancestry, and this was clearly reiterated in the article.

As a related aside, the Evangelical Union of Sydney University recently had their perennial compromising science/religion lunchtime talk. One of the scientists on the panel of “experts”, when asked about evolution, gave it an unqualified thumbs up. I couldn’t help but notice the confused look on the atheist’s face who asked the question. Quite rightly she instantly realised the incommensurability and the procrustean explanation of a putative marriage between Christian theism and this materialistic worldview.

One last jibe at the essay’s author Clive Marks. Marks is blissfully and philosophically unaware that just because something is the case (i.e. rabbits suffer when exposed to Myxomatosis), that this is sufficient epistemic justification to derive moral condemnation concerning this fact (i.e. it’s morally reprehensible to expose rabbits to Myxomatosis because rabbits suffer). And certainly, on an evolutionary epistemic in which the fit win and the weak are removed, I can’t see how a reversal of nature’s norm is at all warranted.

Now to the real comment I wish to make.

What grabbed my attention was the article’s opening sentence: “Time and evolution have been detached creators”

This blog has endlessly pointed out that the heretics over in that other world of Sydney Anglicanism have robbed Christ of his glory and office by substituting another creator for Him. These wolves neither read the Bible properly nor listen to commonsense and advice and thus, in chasing after the world’s wisdom, they “are deluded by specious arguments…and fall prey to hollow and misleading philosophy.” Rather than wholeheartedly upholding Paul’s statement that “everything was created through him”, these rascals have deceived others that the gods of time and evolution can act as a surrogate for Christ. Not content with their own evil thoughts, they pour scorn on and try to silence any who oppose their ideas.

That atheists openly worship time and evolution as the “gods” of materialism only makes the SADs enlisting of these very same “gods” inexcusable.

In Nature...

Quote from the 'Big Questions' in Spectrum (SMH) Oct 4-5, 2008, in answer to the question "What's the point of the common cold"?:

" nature, nothing is for anything."


Now the typical SAD response: pained quizical expression casts over face, and the traditional 'well, yes, but" response is prepared..."you see, God really created, he tells us so in Genesis 1, but he doesn't tell us how, and that's where science steps in to tell us that we evolved..."

But, for the average person who has no commitment to the Bible, he just hears about evolution and doesn't see a need for the 'god hypothesis' and so just sits with "in nature, nothing is for anything".

Friday, October 3, 2008

Dawkins Does Dumb

Re-reading some old articles the other day I renewed my acquaintance with Dallas Willard's review of Dawkin's Blind Watchmaker (BTW, I recommend all his articles: of course I don't agree with them all, but Willard is reliably thought provoking).

Dawkins takes up the argument from personal incredulity: that is people who just 'can't imagine' evolutionary sequences occuring. Willard states it: "to the effect that current or similar species could not possibly have originated from vastly simpler life forms, and he discusses certain mistakes and alleged limitations of imagination that may prevent us from appreciating the possibility of biological evolution along Darwinian lines."

Now, instead of presenting an array of experimental evidence, or showing the microbiological pathways whereby the alleged 'descent' occured, what does Dawkins do? He counters with an alternative imaginative construct. And that's all! He doesn't have any evidence! All he's got is puffery, hope and inuendo. So if its just a battle of imaginative constructs, and all he can do is criticise an alleged imaginative poverty on the part of creationists (I use the term of all who eschew neo-Darwinist fantasies), and bring his own imagination against it, then he has nothing but a house of cards.

All Dawkin's attack amounts to is this: you can't imagine what I can imagine. Donnez moi un break Dick!

Wednesday, October 1, 2008

Leupold Genesis part 1

Exposition of Genesis by H. C. LEUPOLD, D. D

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis
in the Capital University Seminary
Colombus, Ohio

To the memory of my FATHER and to my MOTHER

The full work is available at

This is the first in a very multi part series. Its a great work, in my view, so, while its available on the net as a whole, it is serialised here for discussion.


Name of the Book

The name universally used in English for this book is "Genesis." This name is a transliteration of the Greek word genesis, which constitutes the regular title from of old in the Septuagint and was taken over by Jerome into the Vulgate--Liber Genesis. Luther made a new departure when he substituted in his German Bible the title "The First Book of Moses"--a designation requiring no further commentary. In the Hebrew Bible the book constitutes the first part of the Pentateuch. As a distinct part it so naturally stands out as a unit that there can be no doubt that it was designed to be just such a unit; and so even criticism from its point of view is ready to accept the division of the Pentateuch as a whole into five parts and that the book of Genesis in particular was a part of it at so early a date as at least four centuries before the Christian era. Though no evidence is available, we are inclined to believe that the Jews discerned the fivefold division of the Pentateuch from the time that the work was put into their hands. They are wont to refer to the book by the title of Bereshith, the very first Hebrew word, meaning: "in the beginning."

PBS does it again

Over in the USA, there's a bit of a buzz in the 'origins' community about a recent PBS (Public Broadcasting System) show that was a promo for Darwin. It pretended to be an 'expose' of 'Intelligent Design'. A website sprang up in no time flat that runs through Darwin's Failed Predictions. The slide show is worth a look...some of our SAD friends might slip over and take a look at how their great icon of creation has run up multiple dead much like the way the Roman church in its infatuation with Aristotle opposed Galileo.

Sunday, September 28, 2008

Philosopher speaks

Caught an interesting essay by Peter Williams at the Evangelical Philosophical Society site. Worth a read, but I will take up one of his points in another post later.

Just do the set reading for now, and we'll discuss.

The review is here.

Thursday, September 25, 2008

K-D: Genesis Commentary Part 9 Last and Long

Ch. 2:4-4:26
Contents and Heading
Genesis 2:4
These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens,
The historical account of the world, which commences at the completion of the work of creation, is introduced as the "History of the heavens and the earth," and treats in three sections, (a) of the original condition of man in paradise (Ge 2:5-25); (b) of the fall (ch. 3); (c) of the division of the human race into two widely different families, so far as concerns their relation to God (ch. 4).

The words, "these are the tholedoth of the heavens and the earth when they were created," form the heading to what follows. This would never have been disputed, had not preconceived opinions as to the composition of Genesis obscured the vision of commentators. The fact that in every other passage, in which the formula "these (and these) are the tholedoth" occurs (viz., ten times in Genesis; also in Nu 3:1; Ru 4:18; 1 Ch 1:29), it is used as a heading, and that in this passage the true meaning of twldwt (OT:8435) precludes the possibility of its being an appendix to what precedes, fully decides the question. The word twldwt (OT:8435), which is only used in the plural, and never occurs except in the construct state or with suffixes, is a Hiphil noun from howliyd (OT:3205), and signifies literally the generation or posterity of any one, then the development of these generations or of his descendants; in other words, the history of those who are begotten or the account of what happened to them and what they performed.

In no instance whatever is it the history of the birth or origin of the person named in the genitive, but always the account of his family and life. According to this use of the word, we cannot understand by the tholedoth of the heavens and the earth the account of the origin of the universe, since according to the biblical view the different things which make up the heavens and the earth can neither be regarded as generations or products of cosmogonic and geogonic evolutions, nor be classed together as the posterity of the heavens and the earth. All the creatures in the heavens and on earth were made by God, and called into being by His word, notwithstanding the fact that He caused some of them to come forth from the earth. Again, as the completion of the heavens and the earth with all their host has already been described in Ge 2:1-3, we cannot understand by "the heavens and the earth," in v. 4, the primary material of the universe in its elementary condition (in which case the literal meaning of howliyd (OT:3205) would be completely relinquished, and the "tholedoth of the heavens and the earth" be regarded as indicating this chaotic beginning as the first stage in a series of productions), but the universe itself after the completion of the creation, at the commencement of the historical development which is subsequently described.

This places its resemblance to the other sections, commencing with "these are the generations," beyond dispute. Just as the tholedoth of Noah, for example, do not mention his birth, but contain his history and the birth of his sons; so the tholedoth of the heavens and the earth do not describe the origin of the universe, but what happened to the heavens and the earth after their creation. bªhibaarª'aam (OT:1254) does not preclude this, though we cannot render it "after they were created." For even if it were grammatically allowable to resolve the participle into a pluperfect, the parallel expressions in Ge 5:1-2, would prevent our doing so. As "the day of their creation" mentioned there, is not a day after the creation of Adam, but the day on which he was created; the same words, when occurring here, must also refer to a time when the heavens and the earth were already created: and just as in Ge 5:1 the creation of the universe forms the starting-point to the account of the development of the human race through the generations of Adam, and is recapitulated for that reason; so here the creation of the universe is mentioned as the starting-point to the account of its historical development, because this account looks back to particular points in the creation itself, and describes them more minutely as the preliminaries to the subsequent course of the world. hbr'm is explained by the clause, "in the day that Jehovah God created the earth and the heavens." Although this clause is closely related to what follows, the simplicity of the account prevents our regarding it as the protasis of a period, the apodosis of which does not follow till v. 5 or even v. 7.

The former is grammatically impossible, because in v. 5 the noun stands first, and not the verb, as we should expect in such a case (cf. Ge 3:5). The latter is grammatically tenable indeed, since vv. 5, 6, might be introduced into the main sentence as conditional clauses; but it is not probable, inasmuch as we should then have a parenthesis of most unnatural length. The clause must therefore be regarded as forming part of the heading. There are two points here that are worthy of notice: first, the unusual combination, "earth and heaven," which only occurs in Ps 148:13, and shows that the earth is the scene of the history about to commence, which was of such momentous importance to the whole world; and secondly, the introduction of the name JEHOVAH in connection with ELOHIM. That the hypothesis, which traces the interchange in the two names in Genesis to different documents, does not suffice to explain the occurrence of Jehovah Elohim in Ge 2:4-3:24, even the supporters of this hypothesis cannot possibly deny.

Not only is God called Elohim alone in the middle of this section, viz., in the address to the serpent, a clear proof that the interchange of the names has reference to their different significations; but the use of the double name, which occurs here twenty times though rarely met with elsewhere, is always significant. In the Pentateuch we only find it in Ex 9:30; in the other books of the Old Testament, in 2 Sam. 7:22,25; 1 Chr. 17:16-17; 2 Chr. 4:41-42; Ps. 84:8,11 ; and Ps 50:1, where the order is reversed; and in every instance it is used with peculiar emphasis, to give prominence to the fact that Jehovah is truly Elohim, whilst in Ps 50:1 the Psalmist advances from the general name El and Elohim to Jehovah, as the personal name of the God of Israel. In this section the combination Jehovah Elohim is expressive of the fact, that Jehovah is God, or one with Elohim. Hence Elohim is placed after Jehovah. For the constant use of the double name is not intended to teach that Elohim who created the world was Jehovah, but that Jehovah, who visited man in paradise, who punished him for the transgression of His command, but gave him a promise of victory over the tempter, was Elohim, the same God, who created the heavens and the earth.

The two names may be distinguished thus: Elohim, the plural of 'elowha (OT:433), which is only used in the loftier style of poetry, is an infinitive noun from 'aalah (OT:5927) to fear, and signifies awe, fear, then the object of fear, the highest Being to be feared, like pachad (OT:6343), which is used interchangeably with it in Ge 31:42,53, and mowraa' (OT:4172) in Ps 76:12 (cf. Isa 8:12-13). The plural is not used for the abstract, in the sense of divinity, but to express the notion of God in the fulness and multiplicity of the divine powers. It is employed both in a numerical, and also in an intensive sense, so that Elohim is applied to the (many) gods of the heathen as well as to the one true God, in whom the highest and absolute fulness of the divine essence is contained. In this intensive sense Elohim depicts the one true God as the infinitely great and exalted One, who created the heavens and the earth, and who preserves and governs every creature. According to its derivation, however, it is object rather than subject, so that in the plural form the concrete unity of the personal God falls back behind the wealth of the divine potencies which His being contains. In this sense, indeed, both in Genesis and the later, poetical, books, Elohim is used without the article, as a proper name for the true God, even in the mouth of the heathen (1 Sa 4:7); but in other places, and here and there in Genesis, it occurs as an appellative with the article, by which prominence is given to the absoluteness of personality of God (Ge 5:22; 6:9, etc.).

The name Jehovah, on the other hand, was originally a proper name, and according to the explanation given by God Himself to Moses (Ex 3:14-15), was formed from the imperfect of the verb haawaah (OT:1961) = haayaah (OT:1961). God calls Himself 'ehªyeh (OT:1961) 'asher (OT:834) 'ehªyeh (OT:1961), then more briefly 'ehªyeh (OT:1961), and then again, by changing the first person into the third, yhwh (OT:3068). From the derivation of this name from the imperfect, it follows that it was either pronounced yahawaah or yahaweh (OT:3068), and had come down from the pre-Mosaic age; for the form haawaah (OT:1961) had been forced out of the spoken language by haayaah (OT:1961) even in Moses' time. The Masoretic pointing yªhaaowh (OT:3068) belongs to a time when the Jews had long been afraid to utter this name at all, and substituted 'adonaay (OT:136), the vowels of which therefore were placed as Keri, the word to be read, under the Kethib yhwh (OT:3068), unless yhwh (OT:3068) stood in apposition to 'adonaay (OT:136), in which case the word was read 'elohiym (OT:430) and pointed yehiowh (a pure monstrosity.)

(Note: For a fuller discussion of the meaning and pronunciation of the name Jehovah vid., Hengstenberg, Dissertations on the Pentateuch i. p. 213 ff.; Oehler in Herzog's Cyclopaedia; and Hölemann in his Bibelstudien. The last, in common with Stier and others, decides in favour of the Masoretic pointing yªhaaowh (OT:3068) as giving the original pronunciation, chiefly on the ground of Rv 1:4 and 5, 8; but the theological expansion ho (NT:3588) oo'n (NT:5607) kai' (NT:2532) ho (NT:3588) ee'n (NT:2258) kai' (NT:2532) ho (NT:3588) ercho'menos (NT:2064) cannot be regarded as a philological proof of the formation of yhwh (OT:3068) by the fusion of haawaah (OT:1961), heowh, yªhiy (OT:1961) into one word.)

This custom, which sprang from a misinterpretation of Lev 24:16, appears to have originated shortly after the captivity. Even in the canonical writings of this age the name Jehovah was less and less employed, and in the Apocrypha and the Septuagint version ho (NT:3588) Ku'rios (NT:2962) (the Lord) is invariably substituted, a custom in which the New Testament writers follow the LXX (vid., Oehler).
If we seek for the meaning of yhwh (OT:3068), the expression 'hyh 'shr 'hyh, in Ex 3:14, is neither to be rendered e'somai (NT:2071) ho's (NT:3739) e'somai (NT:2071) (Aq., Theodt.), "I shall be that I shall be" (Luther), nor "I shall be that which I will or am to be" (M. Baumgarten). Nor does it mean, "He who will be because He is Himself, the God of the future" (Hoffmann). For in names formed from the third person imperfect, the imperfect is not a future, but an aorist. According to the fundamental signification of the imperfect, names so formed point out a person as distinguished by a frequently or constantly manifested quality, in other words, they express a distinctive characteristic (vid., Ewald, §136; Ge 25:26; 27:36, also 16:11 and 21:6). The Vulgate gives it correctly: ego sum qui sum, "I am who I am." "The repetition of the verb in the same form, and connected only by the relative, signifies that the being or act of the subject expressed in the verb is determined only by the subject itself" (Hofmann).

The verb haayaah (OT:1961) signifies "to be, to happen, to become;" but as neither happening nor becoming is applicable to God, the unchangeable, since the pantheistic idea of a becoming God is altogether foreign to the Scriptures, we must retain the meaning "to be;" not forgetting, however, that as the Divine Being is not a resting, or, so to speak, a dead being, but is essentially living, displaying itself as living, working upon creation, and moving in the world, the formation of yhwh (OT:3068) from the imperfect precludes the idea of abstract existence, and points out the Divine Being as moving, pervading history, and manifesting Himself in the world. So far then as the words 'hyh 'sr 'hyh are condensed into a proper name in yhwh (OT:3068), and God, therefore, "is He who is," inasmuch as in His being, as historically manifested, He is the self-determining one, the name JEHOVAH, which we have retained as being naturalized in the ecclesiastical phraseology, though we are quite in ignorance of its correct pronunciation, "includes both the absolute independence of God in His historical movements," and "the absolute constancy of God, or the fact that in everything, in both words and deeds, He is essentially in harmony with Himself, remaining always consistent" (Oehler).

The "I am who am," therefore, is the absolute I, the absolute personality, moving with unlimited freedom; and in distinction from Elohim (the Being to be feared), He is the personal God in His historical manifestation, in which the fulness of the Divine Being unfolds itself to the world. This movement of the person God in history, however, has reference to the realization of the great purpose of the creation, viz., the salvation of man. Jehovah therefore is the God of the history of salvation. This is not shown in the etymology of the name, but in its historical expansion. It was as JEHOVAH that God manifested Himself to Abram (Ge 15:7), when He made the covenant with him; and as this name was neither derived from an attribute of God, nor from a divine manifestation, we must trace its origin to a revelation from God, and seek it in the declaration to Abram, "I am Jehovah." Just as Jehovah here revealed Himself to Abram as the God who led him out of Ur of the Chaldees, to give him the land of Canaan for a possession, and thereby described Himself as the author of all the promises which Abram received at his call, and which were renewed to him and to his descendants, Isaac and Jacob; so did He reveal Himself to Moses (Ex 3) as the God of his fathers, to fulfil His promise to their seed, the people of Israel.

Through these revelations Jehovah became a proper name for the God, who was working out the salvation of fallen humanity; and in this sense, not only is it used proleptically at the call of Abram (ch. 12), but transferred to the primeval times, and applied to all the manifestations and acts of God which had for their object the rescue of the human race from its fall, as well as to the special plan inaugurated in the call of Abram. The preparation commenced in paradise. To show this, Moses has introduced the name Jehovah into the history in the present chapter, and has indicated the identity of Jehovah with Elohim, not only by the constant association of the two names, but also by the fact that in the heading (v. 4 b) he speaks of the creation described in ch. 1 as the work of JEHOVAH ELOHIM.

(from Keil & Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament: New Updated Edition, Electronic Database. Copyright (c) 1996 by Hendrickson Publishers, Inc.)